New PDF release: A Glossary of Sociolinguistics.
By Alan Cruse
This handy-size reference e-book comprises the entire phrases prone to be encountered in a semester's learn of sociolinguistics. The definitions are transparent, concise and whole, and lots of examples are supplied. extra maps and diagrams supplement the textual content. hugely urged.
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Additional info for A Glossary of Sociolinguistics.
The main strategies of 793 02 pages 001-202 58 31/3/06 10:19 Page 58 A GLOSSARY OF SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS indirectness are metonymy, generalisation, metaphor and phonological deformation. Sex: intercourse go to bed with (metonymy), do it (generalisation) penis His member was clearly visible (generalisation) Bodily function: defecate go to the toilet (metonymy), use the toilet (generalisation) Death: die pass away (metaphor), He’s no longer with us (generalisation) Religion: God gosh, golly (phonological deformation) Jesus gee whiz (phonological deformation) Hell heck (phonological deformation) event-types In the description of verb aspect a number of event-types are distinguished, according to the way the event unfolds through time.
Expressive meaning is valid only for the speaker at the moment of utterance. For instance, What the hell are you doing here? expresses negative surprise on the part of the speaker. e. expressive meaning does not exhibit displacement). 3. Evocative meaning denotes words specific to, or specially characteristic of, particular language varieties such as dialects and registers that have the power to evoke their usual contexts (think of the difference between dale and glen, or kick the bucket and pass away).
When we say some chocolate, we think of the chocolate as a continuous substance without inherent boundaries; when we say two chocolates, we think of the chocolates as distinct bounded entities. Most mass nouns in English are grammatically singular, but some are plural, such as brains (as in It takes brains to do this job), guts, belongings, oats. Although many nouns have a strong preference for either mass use or count use, many others can be used normally either way (some wine (mass), some wines (count)), or show only a weak preference.
A Glossary of Sociolinguistics. by Alan Cruse